The application of lithium-ion batteries is very extensive. What advantages make it so popular? Perhaps you are also curious about this. Before unravelling this confusion, let’s first understand what is a lithium-ion battery.
- 1 What is a Lithium-ion Battery?
- 2 Benefits of Lithium-ion Battery
- 3 Conclusion
What is a Lithium-ion Battery?
The positive electrode material of a lithium-ion battery is a lithium-ion compound, such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO₂), lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄), or lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO₄). The negative electrode material is usually graphite. It is a rechargeable battery that uses lithium ions as carriers, generating energy through the movement of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes. Lithium ions as positive electrode materials bring the following benefits to the battery:
Benefits of Lithium-ion Battery
The safety of the battery has always been our top concern. The chemical properties of lithium-ion are very stable, so even in cases of overcharging, puncture, impact, or burning, it is unlikely to catch fire or explode easily. You can use it with confidence.
No Memory Effect
Lithium-ion batteries have almost no memory effect because their chemical performance is very stable and does not change over time. So, you can recharge the battery at any time without needing to completely discharge it first.
The weight of lithium batteries is related to their capacity, and other design elements, such as the shell material, also affect the weight of the battery. Therefore, different types of lithium-ion batteries will have differences in weight. However, overall, lithium-ion batteries are lighter than traditional nickel-cadmium batteries and lead-acid batteries, sometimes even only one-third of their weight, which can significantly reduce the burden of carrying luggage when you are out and about.
Long Cycle Life
The cycle life of a lithium battery refers to the number of charge and discharge cycles it can complete before the battery capacity decreases to a certain level. The cycle life is influenced by various factors, including battery materials, manufacturing quality, operating environment, and charging/discharging methods.
Under proper usage conditions, lithium-ion batteries can achieve thousands of charge-discharge cycles. For example, Delong’s lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO₄) batteries have a cycle life of around 6500 cycles, and some lithium titanium batteries on the market can even exceed tens of thousands of cycles, far surpassing lead-acid batteries.
High Energy Density
The energy density of lithium-ion batteries is relatively high among rechargeable batteries, usually ranging between 150-250 Wh/kg. High-performance lithium-ion batteries can even achieve energy densities exceeding 300 Wh/kg. As you know, solid-state metal lithium batteries have reached an energy density of 500 Wh/kg, approaching the theoretical limit. High energy density means that you can use more energy.
Lithium-ion batteries have high energy density and are lightweight. Compared to lead-acid batteries, they can provide your devices with longer-lasting power at the same volume or weight.
Lithium-ion batteries have a wide operating temperature range, from -20°C to 60°C, and still maintain good performance. Some lithium-ion battery manufacturers even expand their operating temperatures by developing low-temperature lithium batteries and high-temperature lithium batteries for specific applications. When choosing lithium-ion batteries, you can select them based on the operating temperature.
Charging – Fast & Safe
Lithium-ion batteries’ charge and discharge speed is speedy, usually expressed in C-rates to represent the rate of charging and discharging, such as 1C, 2C, 3C, etc.
Here, C represents the rated capacity of the battery:
1C means charging and discharging at a current equal to the battery capacity.
2C means charging and discharging at a current twice the battery capacity.
Let’s take a simple example: for a battery with a capacity of 10,000 milliampere-hours(mAh),
the 1C charge and discharge current is 10,000 mA, and the 2C charge and discharge current is 20,000 mA.
This should be easy for you to understand. In practice, the charging rate of lithium-ion batteries is usually between 1C and 3C, and can reach a maximum of 5C.
Low Self-discharge Rate
Self-discharge rate refers to the rate at which a battery discharges on its own when not in use. Regardless of the battery type, a certain degree of self-discharge exists. Self-discharge can affect the performance and lifespan of the battery, so a lower self-discharge rate is better.
The self-discharge rate of lithium-ion batteries is generally between 2% and 5%. Even after being fully charged, they can maintain a relatively high capacity when left idle indoors for a month, which is a perfect figure compared to other lithium batteries with a self-discharge rate of over 10%.
Lithium-ion batteries require almost no maintenance. However, paying attention to not overcharging or over-discharging during your regular use, avoiding use beyond their working temperature range, and regularly recharging idle batteries can appropriately extend their lifespan.
Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable batteries that can effectively provide high energy density and reduce environmental impact. Furthermore, lithium-ion batteries do not contain heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, or mercury, and therefore do not pollute the environment.
The above are the benefits of lithium-ion batteries. Other aspects may not be mentioned, and we will continue to update them.
If you want to learn more about lithium-ion batteries, this is a paper about the 16 types of lithium-ion batteries.