You must not be unfamiliar with lithium-ion batteries and lead-acid batteries, as they have been with humanity for a long time. But with the development of the times, lithium-ion and lead-acid batteries are difficult to meet people’s growing needs. The development of other types of chemical batteries is imminent, and people are turning their attention back to sodium-ion batteries. So what is a sodium-ion battery?

What Is Sodium Ion Battery?

Sodium-ion batteries are rechargeable batteries, abbreviated as SIB or NIB. Sodium-ion batteries have been developed as early as the early 1970s. However, at that time, their commercial prospects were overshadowed by lithium-ion batteries, leading to a stagnation in the development of sodium batteries. It wasn’t until the early 2010s that sodium-ion batteries re-entered the spotlight.

The components of a sodium-ion battery include anode, cathode, electrolyte, etc. Anodes include carbon, graphene, carbon arsenide, metals, metal alloys, oxides, molybdenum disulfide, etc. So how do these ingredients create electricity?

Sodium Ion Battery

How Does A Sodium Battery Work?

We know that lithium-ion batteries are also rechargeable, and we have discussed their working principle before. Actually, the working principle of sodium ion battery is similar to it. Charging and discharging are also completed through the movement of sodium ions between the positive and negative electrodes. During the charging process, sodium ions move from the cathode to the anode. Conversely, when the battery discharges, the sodium ions move from the anode back to the cathode.

Sodium Ion Batteries Working Principle

Sodium Ion Batteries Working Principle

Benefits Of Sodium-Ion Batteries

You must also be quite curious about what advantages have brought sodium-ion batteries back into the focus of research and development.

Rich Resources

Compared to lithium, which only makes up 0.0065% of the Earth’s crust, sodium resources are considerably more abundant, accounting for 2.75%. Moreover, these are not concentrated in a few countries but are evenly distributed across the globe.

Rich Resources - Sodium

 Safety Performance

Lithium batteries are more stable than lead-acid batteries, but you may have heard of lithium batteries catching fire and exploding. Therefore, researchers subjected sodium batteries to all the tests that lithium batteries undergo, specifically to assess their safety performance. The results were quite encouraging; sodium batteries have proven to be chemically more stable than lithium batteries and do not catch fire or explode, even under such stringent conditions.

Better Low Temperature Performance

Sodium batteries have a very wide operating temperature range, capable of normal charging and discharging from -40°C to 80°C. This performance perfectly addresses the issue of certain rechargeable batteries not functioning properly in cold regions.

Fast Charging Capability

From the products that have been introduced to the market, we can see that sodium-ion batteries possess excellent fast-charging abilities. They can be charged up to 90% in just 15 minutes. This capability significantly reduces waiting times for users.

Environmentally Friendly Energy

Sodium-ion batteries have an extremely minimal impact on the environment, representing a new type of green and environmentally friendly energy.


We should recognize that sodium resources are quite abundant. Although the current price of sodium-ion batteries has not yet reached the ideal point, with the advancement of technology, they are expected to offer a lower cost than lithium iron phosphate batteries, leveraging their inherent advantages.

Disadvantages Of Sodium-Ion Batteries

Energy Density

The current energy density of sodium-ion batteries is not very high, and the volume and weight are relatively large. However, with ongoing improvements in electrode materials and battery design by researchers, their energy density is expected to significantly increase in the future.

Cycle Life

Currently, sodium-ion batteries generally have a cycle life of around 3000 charges. Compared to the more mature technology of lithium batteries, there is significant room for improvement in their cycle life, and they are expected to quickly become comparable in this regard.

Market Maturity

Compared to lithium and lead-acid batteries, sodium-ion battery technology is not yet as mature. The manufacturing and supply chains for sodium-ion batteries are still not well-established, and their application in the market is relatively narrow. It will take a longer time for them to reach full commercialization.

What Can The Sodium-Ion Batteries Be Used For?

The raw materials of sodium-ion batteries are abundant and inexpensive. However, due to their lower energy density, they are particularly suitable for applications where weight and volume are not critical requirements,  such as large-scale energy storage systems, low-speed electric vehicles, industrial vehicles, etc.

Sodium Ion Battery Applciation

Sodium Ion Battery Applciation

What Is The Future Of Sodium Batteries?

Sodium-ion batteries represent a promising energy storage technology, but their industrialization is currently at a low level, and the advantage of low raw material costs has not yet been fully realized. 

Through innovation and improvements in materials, the performance of the batteries can be further enhanced, including energy density, service life, and charge/discharge efficiency. 

In addition, the advantage of abundant resources, coupled with advancements in production processes, means that sodium-ion batteries could significantly reduce manufacturing costs once they enter large-scale production. 

Overall, they are expected to quickly find applications in a wide range of fields beyond low-speed electric vehicles and energy storage systems.

Sodium Battery Resource

Sodium Battery Resource

Sodium Ion Battery Vs. Lithium Ion Battery

Comparisons between similar types of batteries are inevitable. When choosing a battery, you also want to know which type offers the best cost-performance ratio for your devices. Next, we will briefly compare them to lithium-ion batteries. If you would like to understand more detailed information, please read the article “Sodium Ion Battery vs. Lithium Ion Battery.”

Sodium Ion Battery VS. Lithium Ion Battery

Sodium Ion Battery VS. Lithium Ion Battery

Energy Density

Currently, the energy density of sodium-ion batteries is slightly lower than that of lithium-ion batteries. However, with technological advancements, the energy density of sodium batteries is gradually increasing and is expected to catch up with lithium-ion batteries within the next two years.


The raw materials for sodium-ion batteries are abundant and inexpensive, and their overall future costs are expected to be lower than those of lithium-ion batteries.

Service Life

The cycle life of sodium-ion batteries is shorter than that of lithium-ion batteries.

Sodium Ion Battery Vs. Lead Acid Battery

If you would like to delve deeper into the advantages and disadvantages of both, please read the article “Which Is Better? | Sodium Ion Battery vs. Lead Acid Battery”.

Sodium Ion Battery VS Lead Acid Battery

Sodium Ion Battery VS Lead Acid Battery

Energy Density

The energy density of sodium-ion batteries is higher than that of lead-acid batteries.


Lead-acid batteries have a very low cost. When sodium-ion batteries are fully commercialized, their prices are expected to be lower than those of lead-acid batteries.

Service Life

Sodium-ion batteries have a longer service life than lead-acid batteries.

Who Makes Sodium-Ion Batteries?

Although sodium-ion batteries have not yet become widely prevalent, there are already quite a few manufacturers engaged in research, development, and production in the market. So, which companies are manufacturing sodium-ion batteries?

Altris AB



Faradion Limited

HiNA Battery Technology Company

KPIT Technologies

Natron Energy



For more information about sodium-ion battery manufacturers, please click on this article “Top Sodium Ion Battery Companies in the World“.


Will Sodium-Ion Batteries Replace Lithium?

Although sodium-ion batteries have many advantages, they will not replace lithium-ion batteries in the short term. This is because their technology is not yet mature enough, and the degree of commercialization needs to be further expanded. In specific market segments and application scenarios, sodium-ion batteries may have more advantages. However, in areas that require high energy density and fast charging speeds, sodium-ion batteries still need further development.

Why Don’t We Use Sodium-Ion Batteries?

Although sodium-ion batteries are popular in cost-sensitive sectors, their energy density is not high enough, and the amount of energy they can store is relatively low, making them unsuitable for use in portable electronic devices or electric vehicles. 

Additionally, this technology is not yet mature, and the supply chain and production infrastructure are not sufficiently developed and stable, with production costs not yet reduced to the expected range.

In the future, as the technology advances and costs are further reduced, it is believed that sodium-ion batteries will find their market niche, break into the application market, and become a more preferred choice.

Will Tesla Use Sodium-Ion Batteries?

Although Tesla has not announced any news about its plans to use sodium-ion batteries. But considering its continuous exploration of various battery technologies to enhance product performance and cost-effectiveness. If sodium-ion batteries can improve their performance including energy density, cycle life, charge and discharge rate, and further reduce costs, improve the supply chain, etc. Tesla should consider adopting this technology.


The above is about the content of sodium-ion batteries, from the definition, working principle, advantages and disadvantages, and applications, to comparison with similar types of batteries.  I hope it can increase your understanding of sodium-ion batteries. Your views are also welcome.